So not only was Java gone from my system after the update, the Xcode command line tools disappeared as well. I’m not sure if they disappeared with the Mavericks update or when I upgraded Xcode to 5.0.1, but regardless, they’re gone.
In the past few versions of Xcode you could open the application, head to preferences, and select them under Downloads > Components. Unfortunately they’re no longer there.
In classic Apple fashion they’ve changed the way you get the command line tools without really mentioning it (at least not that I could find). Most likely because there were many folks who wanted the tools without having to install Xcode.
There are now two ways to get them:
1) Download from the Apple Developer Site (you’ll need to login with your account)
2) Or trigger the install to start by running the following command:
And to be extra clear, Xcode is no longer required in order to install the command line tools as described above.